Year: 2012

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Tx Dept of Family & Protective Services has a New “tech-friendly” Website

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The Texas Department of Family and Protective Services has, today, launched a new “website” that makes it easier to find what you need and easier to understand what you find.

The new DFPS websites sports a new look, improved layout, user-centric organization, and plainer language. This user-friendly website also uses “”responsive design””.

That means it displays well on any of your devices—desktop PC, tablet, or smart phone by detecting your device and rearranging itself according.

Lean more about the new DFPS website and what has changed at http:// www.dfps.state.tx.us/Http://www.dfps.state.tx.us/About_DFPS/News/2012/ 2012-11-10_website_redesign.asp and take few minutes to check out the rest of the website at www.dfps.state.tx.us [ http:// www.dfps.state.tx.us ]. [ http://content.govdelivery. com/bulletins/gd/ TXHHSC-5c0b65?reqfrom=share ]

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Are You Really Ready to Adopt a Foster Child?

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November is National Adoption Awareness Month and there are millions of children waiting for permanent homes in the United States.

But beware, adopting a child may not be as easy of a process as one might think when going through the foster care system to find a child. It would seem like with such a high demand for “forever homes” that it would be lickety split but its not. There is alot  to consider.

As owner and writer of this blog, It’s Almost Tuesday, I have developed many goals over the years that I would like to see realized for myself as an author/advocate, and for my original short story seen on the main page of my blog,  It’s Almost Tuesday

Albeit, It’s Almost Tuesday was written as a fictional story, but I wrote it based on true stories of child abuse that I had learned about that was occurring within the Texas Foster Care System.

One of my goals … or  my hopes, rather, is that my story, It’s Almost Tuesday, will one day  become “recommended reading” for all foster parents and parents who are considering the adoption of a foster child. I believe social workers who work in the placement of the children, as well, should read It’s Almost Tuesday.

I wrote the story using the exact words of my 8 year old son whenever possible. Words he spoke to me during our visits that detailed what was going on and what he was going through during his stay in  foster care. As you read the story, those powerful words are the very real words of my child!

The story may be fictional, but it is very real indeed. It reveals a truth that social workers and foster parents know all too well and adoptive parents should be aware of. There has been much that deeply affected these children after what all they have been through.

First thing first, understand that when you consider adopting a foster child, you consider becoming the permanent  or  “forever home” that child has been waiting for. 

This is a child who has had no sense of normalcy, whose life has been lacking stability, without consistency, or any constant sense of security in very likely a long time ..possibly years.

You may very likely become the first positive influence and role model in that childs life. This role carries great weight and heavy responsibility.

Do not be discouraged. There are many wonderful blessings you have to offer, as an adoptive family, to a very special child in your permanent forever home.

Ask yourself: Are you and your family really ready to make such a paramount decision and strong commitment which will surely be necessary? Are you ready for this life changing experience?

Be honest with yourself.

*Many foster children are special needs,come from an ethnic minority group, and/or has siblings. Consider all of your family’s strengths and weaknesses. 

Have you considered what age range you are looking for? 

Are you deadset determined on adopting an infant or toddler?  Or would you consider adopting an older, harder-to-place child?

Are you willing to consider adopting a child outside of your particular race? 

Be real and dont worry about questioning your every decision, there are no right or wrong answers, only important questions with sometimes difficult answers to seek when making the (right) decision.

*Do you know what it means for a child to be “special needs”? Do you understand, completely, what a “special needs adoption” means?  Are you sure that a “special needs adoption” is right for you?

The trauma of foster care carries many emotional and behavioral changes in the children that may prove challenging to any family, not just yours. 

Do not be afraid to ask questions and reach out for help along your path.

Take the time to research the mental health conditions that are common to foster children. Many of these children have suffered abuse and neglect and then they were sent on a very scary journey through the foster care system.

Reactive Attachment Disorder , Bi-Polar Disorder, and ADHD are a few common problems these children often exhibit.

Be sure you are prepared for these challenges. Google is your friend. There are many useful sites available online to assist you along the way.

*Laws vary from state to state. What rules and regulations are required in your local area?

Make sure your family is eligible and qualified for an adoption of a foster child.

You may be required to have a home study done that will help determine if you are qualified to adopt. What are the areas of concern that the social workers will look at when doing the home study?

Some examples of home study items may include items such as: the number of bedrooms in the home, your marital status, the combined income of your household, the number of people living in your home, and  what criminal/cps background record (if any) each person in the household may have, etc.

It is better to have an idea, beforehand, of what you are up against when qualifying to adopt a foster child.

*Make sure you wholly understand the position of your local agency on foster children and adoption.

Make sure you’re on the same page.  Many times the goal of foster care is to reunite the child with the natural parents. When you look to adopt, make sure that you are clear with the social worker that you are seeking only a child who is “legally free” for adoption.

The child is not “legally free” for adoption unless parental rights have been severed with the natural parents.

*Besides the home study you may also be required to take some training classes as well.

Check with your local family advocacy center for what class you will be required to enroll in. You may have a certain number of hours to complete in a certain area of training.

Remember, it is not an easy or quick process to adopt a foster child, and it could very easily take a year or more to complete.

Be prepared for the long haul  and ask alot of questions. You’ll be glad you did. Knowledge is power. The more you know, the smoother the process will go.

When the process is going smoothly you’ll be better able to focus on the most important aspect -your forever child.

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Good luck and Godspeed.

source of information includes:
Deciding if Foster Care Or Adoption Is Right For You. By Rachael Moshman.
Suburban
Parent magazine, November 2012.

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EMDR Therapy: Self-Help Techniques for Trauma Relief

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Self help techniques for my brothers and sisters out there also suffering from PTSD

April 18, 2012 by Kellie Holly

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy is primarily used as a treatment for PTSD. Discovered and developed by Francine Shapiro, Ph.D., EMDR uses eye movements, taps or tones to reprogram trauma victims’ thinking. The end result can be relatively fast relief of PTSD symptoms, including the re-experiencing of the trauma and other symptoms resulting from horrific events like rape or combat. EMDR also helps with “little t” traumas having to do with beliefs about ourselves formed during childhood and other mental health disorders.

How Does EMDR Work?
EMDR uses a psychoanalytic approach to verbally tie trauma triggers to memories so the brain can move past the pain and heal rapidly. In fact, many one-time traumas can be efficiently handled in three 90-minute sessions with a trained EMDR clinician (childhood traumas will take more time). One of the best parts about EMDR is it does not involve repetitively talking through the trauma.

For example, rape victims will not have to relive the pain they felt and combat victims will not be forced to relive the events causing their trauma.

About Francine Shapiro, Ph.D.
Dr. Francine Shapiro is a recipient of the International Sigmund Freud Award for Psychotherapy of the City of Vienna, the American Psychological Association Trauma Psychology Division Award for Outstanding Contributions to Practice in Trauma Psychology, and the Distinguished Scientific Achievement in Psychology Award, from the California Psychological Association. Her new book, for both laypeople and clinicians, is called Getting Past Your Past: Take Control of Your Life with Self-Help Techniques from EMDR Therapy.

Dr. Shapiro joins us on this edition of the HealthyPlace Mental Health TV Show to discuss EMDR and these new EMDR self-help techniques for relief of traumas in your life as well as ways to deal with stress, negative thoughts and emotions, and understanding why you may over-react in relationships.

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Are You Afraid of Your Doctor or Therapist?

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The following article is from a wonderful newsgroup moderated by Dr Sam Vaknin I subscribe to, which offers so many informative articles its hard for me to choose which to re-post.

I have spent my fair share of  time in the hospital due to a rare genetic blood disorder I inherited from my fathers side if the family. My condition puts me at high risk of developing blood  clots, and so each time I’ve had clots move into my lungs, it couldve been fatal.

That being said, admittedly, I have also developed a fear of hospitals. I’m not necessarily afraid of the doctors, after all, their expertise saved my life each time. But my fears cause me to feel anxious when I talk to my doctors. So this article really caught my attention.

Source: http://thepsychopath.freeforums.org/are-you-afraid-of-your-doctor-therapist-healthyplace-t21335.html

It seems many people are afraid of their doctors. After all, the doctor is an authoritarian figure. A recent study published in the May 2012 issue of Health Affairs reveals people don’t want to appear as “difficult patients.” Appearing stupid in front of the doctor is also another concern. Patients are also afraid that if they challenge the doctor, the doctor will enact some form of retribution. (See the discussion on being afraid of your doctor on our Google+ page.)

None of this is good because in dealing with a mental illness, you need to be educated and able to ask questions of your doctor or therapist. You also have the right to not only discuss the doctor’s treatment recommendations, but you should feel free to say “this is not right for me. Here’s what I’m thinking.”

Talking to Your Doctor or Therapist

So how do you get to that point where you feel comfortable dealing with your doctor?

Dr. Patricia Salber, author of “The Doctor Weighs In” blog, suggests you research your illness prior to your doctor visit via the internet, talking to other patients, even getting second opinions. Then write down a list of questions or concerns, so you’re prepared.

Remember, the doctor’s time is limited.

If you feel the meeting is important, bring a friend or loved one who can advocate for you and/or take notes as needed.
I’m going to pass on a fourth suggestion offered up by our social media manager, Amanda Collins:

“I think the important thing is to change the way you look at your doctor. If you see your doctor as a god, then where does that put you? On the other hand, if you view him/her as a respected member of your treatment team and a person you pay for advice, then you have all the rights that go along with that.
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If you find a particular story, video, psychological test or other HealthyPlace feature helpful, there’s a good chance others in need will too. Please share.

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What Treatments Are Available For PTSD?

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PTSD is treated by a variety of forms of psychotherapy (talk therapy) and pharmacotherapy (medication).

There is no single best treatment, but some treatments appear to be quite promising, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).  CBT includes a number of diverse but related techniques such as cognitive restructuring, exposure therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). For most people symptoms improve over the first year.

Treatment also reduces symptoms but for some symptoms can last a lifetime.
Roughly 30% of individuals develop a chronic form of PTSD.

PTSD usually involves periods of symptom increase followed by remission or decrease, although some individuals may experience symptoms that are long lasting and severe.

Some older veterans, who report a lifetime of only mild symptoms, experience significant increases in symptoms following retirement, severe medical illness in themselves or their spouses, or reminders of their military service, such as reunions and anniversaries.

What other problems do people with PTSD experience?

It is very common for other conditions to occur along with PTSD, such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.

More than half of men with PTSD also have problems with alcohol. The next most common co-occurring problems in men are depression, followed by conduct disorder, and then problems with drugs.

In women, the most common co-occurring problem is depression. Just under half of women with PTSD also experience depression.

The next most common co-occurring problems in women are specific fears, social anxiety, and then problems with alcohol.

People with PTSD often have problems functioning.

In general, people with PTSD have more unemployment, divorce or separation, spouse abuse and chance of being fired than people without PTSD.

Vietnam veterans with PTSD were found to have many problems with family and other interpersonal relationships, problems with employment, and increased incidents of violence.

People with PTSD also may experience a wide variety of physical symptoms. This is a common occurrence in people who have depression and other anxiety disorders.

Some evidence suggests that PTSD may be associated with increased likelihood of developing medical disorders.

Research is ongoing, and it is too soon to draw firm conclusions about which disorders are associated with PTSD.

PTSD is associated with a number of distinctive neurobiological and physiological changes.

PTSD may be associated with stable neurobiological alterations in both the central & autonomic nervous systems, such as altered brainwave activity, decreased volume of the hippocampus, and abnormal “activation of the amygdala. Both the hippocampus and the amygdala are involved in the processing and integration of memory. The amygdala has also been found to be involved in coordinating the body’s fear response.

I think I have PTSD.
   What can I do now?

Many people who might need help for something like PTSD are afraid to go for help.

One out of five people say they might not get help because of what other people might think.

One out of three people say they would not want anyone else to know they were therapy. But almost 50% of people say that there is less shame in seeking help now than there has been in the past .

A study that’s been done of soldiers coming home from Iraq found that only 40% of service members with mental problems said they would get help.

In many cases this was due to the soldiers’ fears about what others would think, and how it could hurt their military careers.

If you think you have PTSD there are a number of things you can do.

You may want to be evaluated for PTSD by psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker specifically trained to assess psychological problems.

You could also discuss your symptoms with your doctor.
If you do not want to be evaluated but feel you have symptoms of PTSD you may choose “watchful waiting.”

Watchful waiting means taking a wait-and-see approach. If you get better on your own, you won’t need treatment.

If your symptoms do not improve after 3 months and they are either causing you distress or are getting in the way of your work or home life, talk with a health professional.

In a few cases, your symptoms may be so severe that you need immediate help.

Call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you think that you cannot keep from hurting yourself or someone else.

For more information see http:// www.ncptsd.va.gov/

You are not alone.

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What Treatments Are Available For PTSD?

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PTSD is treated by a variety of forms of psychotherapy (talk therapy) and pharmacotherapy (medication).

There is no single best treatment, but some treatments appear to be quite promising, especially cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).  CBT includes a number of diverse but related techniques such as cognitive restructuring, exposure therapy, and eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). For most people symptoms improve over the first year.

Treatment also reduces symptoms but for some symptoms can last a lifetime.
Roughly 30% of individuals develop a chronic form of PTSD.

PTSD usually involves periods of symptom increase followed by remission or decrease, although some individuals may experience symptoms that are long lasting and severe.

Some older veterans, who report a lifetime of only mild symptoms, experience significant increases in symptoms following retirement, severe medical illness in themselves or their spouses, or reminders of their military service, such as reunions and anniversaries.

What other problems do people with PTSD experience?

It is very common for other conditions to occur along with PTSD, such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.

More than half of men with PTSD also have problems with alcohol. The next most common co-occurring problems in men are depression, followed by conduct disorder, and then problems with drugs.

In women, the most common co-occurring problem is depression. Just under half of women with PTSD also experience depression.

The next most common co-occurring problems in women are specific fears, social anxiety, and then problems with alcohol.

People with PTSD often have problems functioning.

In general, people with PTSD have more unemployment, divorce or separation, spouse abuse and chance of being fired than people without PTSD.

Vietnam veterans with PTSD were found to have many problems with family and other interpersonal relationships, problems with employment, and increased incidents of violence.

People with PTSD also may experience a wide variety of physical symptoms. This is a common occurrence in people who have depression and other anxiety disorders.

Some evidence suggests that PTSD may be associated with increased likelihood of developing medical disorders.

Research is ongoing, and it is too soon to draw firm conclusions about which disorders are associated with PTSD.

PTSD is associated with a number of distinctive neurobiological and physiological changes.

PTSD may be associated with stable neurobiological alterations in both the central & autonomic nervous systems, such as altered brainwave activity, decreased volume of the hippocampus, and abnormal “activation of the amygdala. Both the hippocampus and the amygdala are involved in the processing and integration of memory. The amygdala has also been found to be involved in coordinating the body’s fear response.

I think I have PTSD.
   What can I do now?

Many people who might need help for something like PTSD are afraid to go for help.

One out of five people say they might not get help because of what other people might think.

One out of three people say they would not want anyone else to know they were therapy. But almost 50% of people say that there is less shame in seeking help now than there has been in the past .

A study that’s been done of soldiers coming home from Iraq found that only 40% of service members with mental problems said they would get help.

In many cases this was due to the soldiers’ fears about what others would think, and how it could hurt their military careers.

If you think you have PTSD there are a number of things you can do.

You may want to be evaluated for PTSD by psychiatrist, psychologist, or clinical social worker specifically trained to assess psychological problems.

You could also discuss your symptoms with your doctor.
If you do not want to be evaluated but feel you have symptoms of PTSD you may choose “watchful waiting.”

Watchful waiting means taking a wait-and-see approach. If you get better on your own, you won’t need treatment.

If your symptoms do not improve after 3 months and they are either causing you distress or are getting in the way of your work or home life, talk with a health professional.

In a few cases, your symptoms may be so severe that you need immediate help.

Call 911 or other emergency services immediately if you think that you cannot keep from hurting yourself or someone else.

For more information see http:// www.ncptsd.va.gov/

You are not alone.

Uncategorized
What is PTSD?

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur following the experience or witnessing of a traumatic event.

A traumatic event is a life-threatening event such as military combat, natural disasters, terrorist incidents, serious accidents, or physical or sexual assault in adult or childhood. Most survivors of trauma return to normal given a little time. However, some people will have stress reactions that do not go away on their own, or may even get worse over time. These individuals may develop PTSD.

People with PTSD experience three different kinds of symptoms.

1) The first set of symptoms involves reliving the trauma in some way such as becoming upset when confronted with a traumatic reminder or thinking about the trauma when you are trying to do something else.

2) The second set of symptoms involves either staying away from places or people that remind you of the trauma, isolating from other people, or feeling numb.

3) The third set of symptoms includes things such as feeling on guard, irritable, or startling easily.

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In addition to the symptoms described above, we now know that there are clear biological changes that are associated with PTSD.

PTSD is complicated by the fact that people with PTSD often may develop additional disorders such as depression, substance abuse, problems of memory and cognition, and other problems of physical and mental health.

These problems may lead to impairment of the person’s ability to function in social or family life, including occupational instability, marital problems and family problems.

PTSD can be treated with with psychotherapy (“talk” therapy) and medicines such as antidepressants. Early treatment is important and may help reduce long-term symptoms. Unfortunately, many people do not know that they have PTSD or do not seek treatment.

The information in this article will help you to better understand PTSD and the how it can be treated.

How does PTSD develop?

PTSD develops in response to a traumatic event. About 60% of men and 50% of women experience a traumatic event in their lifetime.

Most people who are exposed to a traumatic event will have some of the symptoms of PTSD in the days and weeks after the event.

For some people these symptoms are more severe and long lasting. The reasons why some people develop PTSD are still being studied. There are biological, psychological and social factors that affect the development of PTSD.

Some research shows that ethnic minorities, such as Blacks and Hispanics, are more likely than Whites to develop PTSD. One reason for these differences is that minorities may have more contact with traumatic events.
For example, in Vietnam, Whites were in less combat than Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians.

Researchers are trying to understand other reasons for the differences in PTSD between the ethnic groups. A person’s culture or ethnic group can affect how that person reacts to a problem like PTSD. For example, some people may be more willing than others to talk about their problems or to seek help.

How long does PTSD last?

The course of PTSD is variable. This means it can be different for different people and that it can change over time. PTSD usually begins right after the traumatic event but it can also be physical abuse.

The most traumatic events for women are rape, sexual molestation, physical attack, being threatened with a weapon, and childhood physical abuse.
PTSD is more common in “at-risk” groups such as those serving in combat.

About 30% of the men and women who served in Vietnam experience PTSD. An additional 20% to 25% have had partial PTSD at some point in their lives.

More than half of all male Vietnam veterans and almost half of all female Vietnam veterans have experienced “clinically serious stress reaction symptoms.” PTSD has also been detected among veterans of other wars. Estimates of PTSD from the Gulf War are as high as 10%.

Estimates from the war in Afghanistan are between 6 and 11%. Current estimates of PTSD in military personnel who served in Iraq range from 12% to 20%.

Who is most likely to develop PTSD?

Most people who experience a traumatic event will not develop PTSD. However, the risk for developing PTSD increases if people:

• were directly exposed to the traumatic event as a victim or a witness

• were seriously injured during the trauma

• experienced a trauma that was long lasting or very severe

• saw themselves or a family member as being in imminent danger

• had a severe negative reaction during the event, such as feeling detached from ones surroundings or having a panic attack

• felt helpless during the trauma and were unable to help themselves or a loved one.

Individuals are also more likely to develop PTSD if they:

• have experienced an earlier life threatening event or trauma

• have a current mental health issue

• have less education

• are younger

• are a woman

• lack social support

• have recent, stressful life changes.

Some research shows that ethnic minorities, such as Blacks and Hispanics, are more likely than Whites to develop PTSD. One reason for these differences is that minorities may have more contact with traumatic events.

For example, in Vietnam, Whites were in less combat than Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians. Researchers are trying to understand other reasons for the differences in PTSD between the ethnic groups.

A person’s culture or ethnic group can affect how that person reacts to a problem like PTSD. For example, some people may be more willing than others to talk about their problems or to seek help.

What other problems do people with PTSD experience?

It is very common for other conditions to occur along with PTSD, such as depression, anxiety, or substance abuse.

More than half of men with PTSD also have problems with alcohol. The next most common co-occurring problems in men are depression, followed by conduct disorder, and then problems with drugs.

In women, the most common co-occurring problem is depression. Just under half of women with PTSD also experience depression.

The next most common co-occurring problems in women are specific fears, social anxiety, and then problems with alcohol.

People with PTSD often have problems functioning.

In general, people with PTSD have more unemployment, divorce or separation, spouse abuse and chance of being fired than people without PTSD. Vietnam veterans with PTSD were found to have many problems with family and other interpersonal relationships, problems with employment, and increased incidents of violence.

People with PTSD also may experience a wide variety of physical symptoms. This is a common occurrence in people who have depression and other anxiety disorders. Some evidence suggests that PTSD may be associated with increased likelihood of developing medical disorders.

Research is ongoing, and it is too soon to draw firm conclusions about which disorders are associated with PTSD. PTSD is associated with a number of distinctive neurobiological and physiological changes. PTSD may be associated with stable neurobiological alterations in both the central and autonomic nervous systems, such as altered brainwave activity, decreased volume of the hippocampus, and abnormal activation of the amygdala.

Both the hippocampus and the amygdala are involved in the processing and integration of memory. The amygdala has also been found to be involved in coordinating the body’s fear response.

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An Incredible Reminder of Hope in a Hopeless Place – Death Row

I am going to stray a bit from the foster care genre of this blog to highlight a story so incredible… It must be shared.

Many months ago I checked out some documentaries from the library. One documentary was the true crime story of three little boys mutilated and brutally murdered in Arkansas in what they claimed was a “satanic” killing .

The local authorities and citizens put three local teenagers on the chopping  block and convicted them in a serious miscarriage of justice. They were convicted in baseless cases that held no merit, no science or evidence that directly linked these teenage boys to the crime… except, perhaps, their heavy metal music, morbid curiosity in the occult, teenage angst and gothic black clothes . Teenage rebellion. I remember it… Today they call it “emo” instead of “goth” I think.

I guess it made sense to blame them.. Rather than find the truth…. was it just easier to maka a case on hysteria and propoganda than forensic evidence. Especially at a time just prior to progressive dna technologies that we now know, they used whatever they could to satisfy the outcry of the people to blame someone..fast for this heinous crime.

Well the truth has not rested its case apparently. Hallelujia.

I cried like I knew the people or was involved personally while i watched the documentary Paradise Lost. It was actually filmed almost 20 years ago and the first of I believe three films of the unfolding story.

Today I just happened to see a talk show with one of the three death row inmates they convicted… Damien was a guest on the show … Released from death row.

I was amazed to learn the three have been released, and are on their way to being exonerated.

There are even celebrities such as johnny depp going the excessive distance to selflessly support their cause to prove their innocence. 

And hopefully catch the real killer or killers.

This I’d say is the most incredible story of how its possible to remain hopeful even when hope seemingly ceases to exist.

After 18 years on death row to be free.

There is always hope no matter what you face & anywhere you may find yourself stay strong as hope is as necessary as the air we breathe.

Hopelessness is the devils playground but as proven here, Good overpowers.

Satanic rituals may have taken those babies’ lives then, but that evil will not reign until the end.

Hope & goodness will overcome.

Read it, share it, believe it.
Support the truth & always.. ALWAYS demand TRUTH & justice..
Find out who really did it ….
& exonerate these three…

http://wm3.org

arrest, arrests, child, child abuser, child sex crimes, child welfare reform, foster care abuse, crime
Another (Alleged) Pedophile Arrested !!!!!!

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A man is charged with three counts of aggravated sexual assault of a child under age 14 that includes a 12-year-old girl, a 5-year-old girl and a 15-year-old boy. Michael Shawn Reynolds, 34, address listed in the 1200 block of Ridgeway, was assessed a $250,000 bond on each of the three charges and was in the Wichita County Jail Thursday afternoon. Reynolds was arrested at his home on three warrants Wednesday night. According to the arrest warrant affidavits: On Aug. 13 and Aug. 16 multiple referrals were made to the Texas Department of Family and Protective Services about the possible sexual abuse to the three children. Forensic interviews of the three victims were conducted at Patsy’s House Children’s Advocacy Center Aug. 17 and Aug. 20 where the 12-year-old girl described multiple incidents consistent with aggravated sexual assault of a child while she was 11 and 12 years old. She told interviewers she also witnessed Reynolds preforming multiple sexual acts on the 5-year-old victim. The 5-year-old victim said she also witnessed Reynolds engaging in multiple sexual acts with the 12-year-old victim. Reynolds also coerced the 15-year-old boy into engaging in sexual acts with the 5-year-old girl. The 15-year-old boy said he witnessed Reynolds engaging in multiple sexual acts with the 5-year-old girl while at an apartment where Reynolds formerly lived. Reynolds resided at three different locations in Wichita Falls over the period the incidents occurred. Reynolds told the children not to tell anyone, but the 12-year-old girl spoke up. Reynolds was friends with the family and had access to the victims while visiting. The affidavit states the disclosures made by the 5-year-old victim are credible because a child of her age should not know about them unless she experienced them.